Spirulina is a genuine superfood, and rich source of micro and macronutrients such as protein, vitamins, gamma-linolenic acid, phycocyanin and sulfated polysaccharides, and has a cell wall consisting of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats that are easily digested so that it has more nutritional content than other vegetable food sources.
Tilia cordata is considered the most potent species of the tilia genus. Linden tea has been used in folk medicine across cultures to relieve high blood pressure, calm anxiety, and soothe digestion. Tilia species are widely used in Latin America as sedatives and tranquilisers. In other research, anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects have been observed in mice after tilia consumption.
Punica granatum, or pomegranate, has potent antioxidative, antimicrobial, and anticarcinogenic properties. It’s also been extensively used to treat chronic anxiety and insomnia in rats. Among its potent antioxidants is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound ellagic acid, which has been reported to possess a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities including an antidepressant and anti-anxiety effect.
Valerian has been traditionally used since the 11th century as a natural sedative 'drug’. It’s been shown to reduce anxiety symptoms in people, and fearful and aggressive behaviour in cats. Mild sleep disorders, but also nervous tension, have been treated with roots and rhizomes of valeriana officinalis in mice. Despite the lack of robust research into its use in dogs, it’s widely used in complementary medicine.
Tryptophan is an amino acid that, among other things, creates niacin, essential in creating the neurotransmitter, serotonin. Tryptophan is known to affect general mood and behaviour and many published reports have also described the presence of anxiety, mood and depressive symptoms associated with the depletion of tryptophan. A diet high in tryptophan can lower territorial aggression score.
L-theanine is an amino acid commonly found in tea leaves. It has a relaxing effect in people and dogs, largely due to its similarity in structure to glutamate, the most important excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. This allows the compound to interact with glutamate receptors. It’s also able to modulate neuronal response involved in mood, stress, pleasure and reward.
Flavonoids, oligomeric procyanidins, and some phenolic acids are considered the main active constituents of crataegus species, aka hawthorn. They have positive effects on heart function and blood circulation and anti-anxiety and anti-depressant effects have been observed in people and mice after hawthorn consumption. That could be in part due to the presence of the flavenoid, quercetin.
Gelatin isn’t just a ‘carrier’; it’s also good for dogs, especially ageing ones. For example, it inhibits inflammation and breakdown of the cartilage matrix.Collagen in the cartilage matrix and gelatin have a similar amino acid composition and there are indications that the amino acids in gelatin stimulate the synthesis of collagen cartilage.
Papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. Papaya contains a wide range of bioactive secondary metabolites (eg alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, carotenoids, tannins, saponins) and proteolytic enzymes (papain and chymopapain). It's also rich in lutein, a type carotenoid.
Astragalus contains astragalans which are polysaccharide constituents that stimulate white blood cells production,T-cells, killer cells and antibodies in a fashion that helps maintain and restore the immune system.