Milk thistle is a flowering plant in the Aster family, used in traditional medicine as a liver tonic. Milk thistle generally supports the immune system through its powerful antioxidant, free-radical scavenging action, its ability to preserve the supply of another important antioxidant, glutathione, as well as direct effects on immune cells.It’s helpful for healing after drug therapy, vaccinations, and infections such as canine parvovirus.
Fruits, such as blueberries, are good antioxidants because they contain phenolics that preferentially react with free radicals. Oxidative damage from free radicals plays an important role in several diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and heart disease. It’s also been shown that strenuous exercise in people and dogs produces free radicals and that maintaining antioxidant levels by supplementing the diet with blueberries may prevent exercise-induced oxidative damage.
Kale is rich in betacarotene as well as lutein, and other vitamins and minerals. Kale is rightly called a superfood and is rich in betacarotene as well as lutein, and other vitamins and minerals. Dietary lutein has been shown to cause a significantly enhanced cell-mediated and humoral immune response in dogs. It’s also been shown to enhance the antibody response of dogs given routine vaccinations.
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and an antioxidant that acts to protect cell membranes from oxidative damage. In The Einstein, we use a naturally-derived form, d-alpha tocopherol acetate. (The synthetic form is known as dl-alpha tocopherol.)
L-carnitine is an amino acid that transports fatty acids into our cells' mitochondria so they can be oxidised to produce energy. It also transports the toxic compounds out. Carnitine is particularly important for ageing dogs as the concentration of it declines with age and reduces the integrity of the mitochondrial membrane. In The Einstein, we use acetyl l-carnitine, the most effective form for the brain.
Vitamin C is essential in maintaining oxidative protection for the soluble phase of cells as well as preventing Vitamin E from propagating free radical production. In The Einstein, we use vitamin C in the form of ascorbic acid.
This extract has a complex mixture of constituents, such as terpene lactones, flavonoids and their glycosides – all assumed to be involved in pharmacological effects supporting peripheral and cerebral blood circulation.
Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is one of the adaptogen herbs that is known to have anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory, anti-arthritic and anti-ageing properties. It’s a good source of natural antioxidants such as flavonoids and polyphenols and consumption of ashwagandha may contribute substantial amounts of antioxidants to the diet. It’s also been shown to have a beneficial effect on dogs with liver dysfunction.